Artificial Insemination (AI)

Artificial insemination in cattle was first performed in Kenya in 1935 by Dr. J. Anderson. It was confined to the collection of semen from bulls on individual farms for use on cows in the farms from which it was collected. It was used to combat epivag and other infectious infertility diseases. A survey carried out by Dr. Anderson at that time revealed that over 35 percent of bulls tested were sterile. This emphasized the importance of AI and so its use grew steadily. The first AI scheme was set up in Kenya in 1941 on the basis of a community bull scheme. This was followed in 1942 by a scheme operated by the Limuru Cattle Breeders’ Association, which continues to this day and is linked to the Kenya National Artificial Insemination Service.

Artificial Insemination prevents in in- breeding which can result to the same traits of genes from animals, secondly it controls infectious breeding diseases, thirdly to improve the productivity of the farmers herd and to upgrade the low-producing dairy cows.

Our paravets are always available for service delivery and they ensure both local and imported semen stocked is of good quality and at farmer friendly prices.


There are three main stages of heat detection;

Early heat

  • Increased nervousness.
  • Mounting other cows.
  • Swollen vulva.
  • Reduced feed intake.

Standing heat

  • Standing to be mounted.
  • Clear mucus discharge.
  • Sharp decline in milk production.
  • Animal may stop eating.


Ovulation occurs 25 to 32 hours after the onset of standing heat. Standing behavior is the only reliable symptom producers have to determine time of ovulation. Sperm have to be in the female reproductive tract for approximately six hours before they are capable of fertilizing the egg.

Best fertility is obtained when cattle are inseminated during the last half of standing heat. The A.M.-P.M. system should be used.

After heat

  • Dried mucus on the tail.
  • Animal isolates itself.

Factors Affecting Estrous Behavior

·      Type of housing.

·      Footing surface.

·      Feet and leg problems.

·      Nutritional factors.

·      Lactation number, days postpartum, and milk production.



Milk yield of dairy cow depends on 4 main factors;

  • Genetic ability.
  • Feeding program.
  • Herd management.
  • Herd health.

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